ANTROPOLOGIA DE LA GESTUALIDAD RAY BIRDWHISTELL PDF

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Even if we often convey meanings through visible bodily actions, these are rarely considered part of human language.

I will present a ee of studies on the continuity from actions to gestures to words and signs extending beyond childhood and across cultures, which has been the central research focus of our lab over the past 40 years.

This has been a long, and at times troublesome, journey. Especially when, going against rah traditional approaches to language, we pioneered the idea that human communication transcends the spoken medium, often exploiting embodied forms such as signs and gestures.

Given the presence of gestures across cultures and the existence of languages that are strongly based on overt actions sign languagesthe embodied nature of human communication is hardly questionable.

Initial studies on sign languages SLs tended to focus on the discrete, arbitrary and categorical nature of signs, which makes them more like spoken languages, thereby overlooking the pervasive iconic nature of many SL structures and evident similarities between co-speech gestures, silent gestures and signs. Only in the following years several researchers studying different SL s started focusing on highly iconic structures and began considering signs as visible actions or dedicated gestures with linguistic properties.

Recently, various studies on SLs highlighted the presence of gestural components, while conversely studies on gestures in children and adults have adopted many strategies for analysis borrowed from SLs. Research reviewed shows a progression from motor actions to symbolic communication, which is also highlighted in representational strategies used by children from different cultures and using different vocal and signed languages.

KINESIS by Valentina Arroyave on Prezi

I want to stress the role of sign language and multimodal communication in the study of language as a form of action. To this scope I will present recent research on how co-verbal gestures have compositional structure and semantic significance and on how highly iconic structures are essential in sign languages.

Studying the visible actions of speakers and signers leads to a revision of the traditional dichotomy between linguistic categorical, invariable, arbitrary and enacted gradient, variable, iconicand to the development of a new approach to embodied language.

Religion, Nationalism, and Everyday Performance in Geztualidad. Yolanda Covington-Ward 1 1 University of Pittsburgh In her new book, Gesture and Power, Yolanda Covington-Ward examines the everyday embodied practices and performances of the BisiKongo people of the Lower Congo to show how their gestures, dances, and spirituality are critical in mobilizing social and political action.

Going beyond seeing gesture as a complement to spoken language, Covington-Ward explores the role of gesture in achieving larger social transformations. Conceiving of the body as the center of analysis, a catalyst for social action, and as a conduit for the social construction of reality, Covington-Ward focuses on specific flash points in the last ninety years of Congo s troubled history, when embodied performance was used to gestualkdad political claims, foster dissent, and enforce power.

This talk will focus on two separate yet related instances in which embodiment related to spirituality was at the center of struggles for political and social power. In the s Simon Kimbangu started a Christian prophetic movement based on spirit induced trembling, which swept through the Lower Congo, subverting and challenging Belgian colonial authority. More recently, embodied performance has again stoked reform, as nationalist groups such as Bundu dia Kongo advocate for a return to precolonial religious practices and non- Western gestures birdahistell as traditional greetings as a basis for re-creating the former Kongo Kingdom in the present.

In exploring these embodied expressions of Congolese agency, Covington-Ward provides a framework for understanding how embodied practices transmit social values, identities, and cultural history throughout Africa and the diaspora. In such an environment language is multimodal, meaning we do not just converse by speech but by using a host of visual articulators also.

In this talk, I will present a series of studies that provide insight into the role of these visual articulators in the process of coordination during conversation. Using language in social interaction requires coordination on at least two levels: I will present both experimental and corpus studies to shed light on these issues from a perspective that brings together psycholinguistics and the antopologia of social interaction.

The argument I will make is that the body plays a core role in achieving coordination at both levels mind and interaction and that in order to appreciate the full potential of the body in this domain we atropologia to consider manual and non-manual signals even the subtlest ones gestyalidad, speakers and addressees, and the conversational embedding of multimodal communicative acts.

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Socializing psycholinguistics in this way may allow us to go further in discovering why the human communication system has evolved as gedtualidad multimodal system that it is. I will focus on speech-accompanying representational gestures, which include iconic and metaphorical gestures in McNeill birdehistell sense.

I will discuss evidence regarding how language production processes and gesture gestualiddad processes are inter-related with each other and how gestures reflect spatio-motoric thinking for the purpose of speaking.

I will present evidence based on, among other things, iconic gestures depicting motion events, gestures metaphorically representing abstract concepts, iconic gestures during solving spatial problems, and the relationship between iconic gestures and sound symbolic words. Viewpoint and the bases of meaning in gesture Eve Sweetser 1 1 University of California, Berkeley Although all thought bidrwhistell thus all metaphor is necessarily embodied it resides in physical neural systems this embodiment is particularly visible and inescapable antropologiaa multimodal communication including gesture.

In gesture, mental spaces birdwhitsell metaphorically represented by physical spaces; reasoning and causal action sequence ahtropologia physical motion, and temporal relationships are birdwhidtell ones. One important added feature of this gestural data is that it is necessarily viewpointed: Gestural meaning is thus systematically rooted in the meaningful relationship of the gesturing body to its deictic field. The results of this viewpointed structure are even more pervasive than might appear.

Metaphoric structures are, like other cognitive structures, generally viewpointed. Some, like many metaphors for time, are obviously about front-back, up-down and other physically viewpointed structures.

But even when gestulaidad source frame is less obviously related to physical viewpoint, it still imposes viewpoint on the target frame. Once again, it is particularly noticeable in gestural data. Not only is ary viewpoint in every gesture, antropoloyia viewpoint relates to meaningful embodied metaphoric construal of the body as a whole, which contributes to the meaning of the multimodal discourse.

Recent work on gesture has extended to an active interest in multimodal constructions as, for instance, in my own work on English conditional constructions and gesture. Grammarians have not really thought of conditional constructions as semantically viewpointed though Dancygier and Sweetser presents evidence of viewpointed semantics. But the gestural structures accompanying them show that this area of abstract grammatical meaning is also manifested in viewpointed metaphoric gesture as we should expect from our understanding of bodily meaning.

Nonverbal communicative gestures are a rich well of information on a people s indigenous knowledge that has accounted for the continuity of the people bestualidad well as the organization of their society.

Ranging from symbols inherent in festive ceremonies such as different New Year s activities among Sidaama people Fichee Cambalaallanew yam festivals among Igbo and Twi peoples, to even such thing as funeral dirge among the Babukusu, an understanding of the various communicative symbols offer additional ways to make sense of cultural dynamics.

Additionally, the study of nonverbal communicative codes quotable gestures as corollary of oral speech requires careful documentation, explication and contextualization. Relative to the linguistics of spoken languages in the continent, the study of nonverbal gestures is barely scratching the surface in Africa.

Lenguaje corporal mirar hacia abajo ala izquierda –

Aside from gestures in use by the sighted, blind people also use quotable gestures. Thus, in the quest for the gestural origin of language a study of the communicative gestures in use by both demography would be of great value. In order to instigate greater participation in gesture studies from scholars on the African continent and promote research on gesture in diverse and understudied social groups, I will be discussing and highlighting some areas of ongoing research for which we seek collaboration.

In addition, I will be underscoring the cultural capital inherent in gestured codes of different nations on the continent. Gestural diversity and its limits Kensy Cooperrider 1 1 University of Chicago Anthropologists, linguists, psychologists, and other scholars of human antropplogia often align with one of two poles: In the case of gesture, neither position is tenable something the linguist Roman Jakobson noted almost fifty years ago.

He alluded instead to a middle ground in which gestures grow out of the interrelation of naturalness and conventionality. In this talk, I articulate this middle ground more fully, drawing on my own cross-cultural work in Gesttualidad New Guinea birdwhistrll Mexico, as well as on other recent findings.

I argue that gestural phenomena such as head shakes and nods, pointing gestures, palm-up gestures, and spatial gestures can be fruitfully understood as natural conventions. As such, they exhibit bounded variation; they are not nearly as uniform as universalists might have assumed, but nor are they as variable as relativists could have imagined.

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Visible bodily action in the emergence and development of speakers and signers languaging

I close by highlighting crucial gaps in our current understanding and by echoing Jakobson s exhortation that gestural diversity and universals demand a comprehensive and systematic examination. However, this division of labour is not set in stone: Here I start from the latter in the form of ideophones, vivid sensory words found in many of the world s languages.

As words that are highly gradient, evocative and often iconic, they belong not only to language but to an expanded conception of gesture Nuckolls ; cf. Ideophones often occur in composite gesture-ideophone utterances Kita ; Dingemanse ; Mihasin which gesture and speech work together to depict sensory imagery.

This coupling offers a unique opportunity for a contrastive study of depictive signs across modalities. Are all ideophones equally likely to come with gestures? What are the iconic affordances of speech and manual gesture? How do signs in gesture-ideophone composite utterances compare in terms of gradience, conventionalisation and linguistic integration?

I study these questions in a video corpus of folk definitions of ideophones in Siwu, a Kwa language spoken in Ghana Dingemanse Also, ideophones for actions yaa gushing are more likely to come with gestures than those for states kpoo still. Ideophones show much more gradience and variance in form than other lexical items like nouns and verbs, pointing to their gesture-like status Kunene On the other hand, speakers do converge on basic phonological properties like vowel quality, phonotactic properties and syllabic structure, pointing to their lexicalised nature.

The iconic gestures accompanying ideophones show an even larger amount of gradience and also vary quite a bit across speakers, suggesting they are for the most part non-conventionalised depictive movements. There is a subset of composite utterances in which the gestural part is fairly consistent across speakers in terms of handshape, gesture space or method of depiction.

Over time, some gesture-ideophone combinations may move towards conventionalisation, a development that opens up the way for the formation of emblematic gestures and ultimately perhaps a loss of motivational transparency. Composite gesture-ideophone utterances show the utility of a modality-free notion of gesture Okrent and reminds us that meaningful signs may occupy intermediate positions on what is often cast as a binary distinction between convention and creativity.

El lenguaje del cuerpo – Proyecto Salón Hogar. Lenguaje corporal mirar hacia abajo ala izquierda

When it comes to multimodal acts of depiction, speech and gesture are not loosely aligned and complementary, but tightly coupled and alike in mode of representation. References Dingemanse, Mark Ideophones and gesture in everyday speech. In Language Documentation and Endangerment in Africa, ed by.

Goldin-Meadow, Susan What the hands can tell us about language emergence. Kita, Sotaro Two-dimensional semantic analysis of Japanese mimetics. Journal of African Languages 4: The Ideophone as a Linguistic Rebel.

In Ideophones, ed by. McNeill, David Hand and Mind. University of Chicago Press. Nuckolls, Janis B Spoken in the spirit of gesture: Translating sound symbolism in a Pastaza Quechua Narrative. Okrent, Arika A modality-free notion of gesture and how it can help us with the morpheme vs. That work was able to put these visual practices in the context of grammatical, linguistic expression; this study follows up by putting this practice in some cross-linguistic and discourse-pragmatic contexts.

After this detailed look at narrative in one language, some general points will be made about how celestial pointing for time reference could play a role in narrative discourse in different languages with similar visual systems for time reference.

References De Vos, Connie. The Kata Kolok pointing system: Morphemization and syntactic integration. June Multimodal typology of celestial pointing for time reference. Language and Cognition Department Presentation. Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics. Visible representations of kinship in Central and Northern Australia Jennifer Green 1 1 University of Melbourne Many of us now take it for granted that human interaction is essentially multimodal. As well as speaking or using a sign language, people point, manipulate objects with their hands, and create maps, diagrams and other graphic traces on a range of surfaces.

But answers to questions of how cross-modal and polysemiotic integration is achieved, when it is preferred, and what communicative systems can go together remain more elusive.

In this presentation, I explore these questions by focusing on kinship, a key domain long investigated by anthropologists and linguists alike. The examples are drawn from the rich and complex communicative environment of Central and Northern Australia where Indigenous peoples employ various forms of what is locally termed action sign and gesture alongside speech and drawing practices.